HLA-G is a non-classical MHC Class I molecule that is usually restricted to cytotrophoblasts and other fetal cells in order to protect the fetus from maternal immune responses. However, HLA-G is expressed during viral infections and cancer. The presence of soluble HLA-G, sHLA-G, in serum is noted in various instances of human diseases. Serum HLA-G can serve as a biomarker, which makes it a unique tool in developing confirmatory diagnostics for infectious diseases and cancer. An accurate and early diagnosis of deadly diseases is really important for an early intervention or treatment. The immunosuppressive capabilities of HLA-G make it not only a biomarker for diagnosis but also an excellent target for developing therapeutics. Here, I discuss HLA-G’s potential to be an invaluable tool as a biomarker for diagnostics and a target for therapeutics.
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