We at Biomarkers Journal had opportunity to report “a clue of persoanlized immunotherapy” . In the late 1980s, Rosenberg and his colleagues initially administered autologous T-cells to treat malignant melanoma (such as tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte, TIL). After that, TIL, nature killer cells, cytokine-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells (lymphokine activated killer, LAK; cytokine-induced killer cells, CIK; dendritic cells and cytokineinduced killer cells, DC-CIK), and macrophage have been greatly developed into adoptive immunotherapy. Initially, TIL had some responses to treat tumor patients, however, the cells only achieved 11-30% partial and complete responses (PR and CR) as left photo.
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